Gaza 2008 - 2009  reference from 'Dynamics of Human Violence'
360 km2, population: 1.4 million (cf Westbank 2.4 million), currency: Egyptian pound
groups: Israel Defense Forces (IDF) vs Hamas
background parties: Israeli government, Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), Fatah, Quartet (UN, US, EU, RU), Arab League, Egypt, Syria, Iran (weapons for Hamas)
Israel: western democracy with big military power (incl nuclear weapons), population: 7.3 milion,
actors of violence: armies, paramilitary groups and terror cells
before 2008 (historical) 2008/2009
biological racial/ethnical difference Arabs (i.c. Palestinians) - Jews
demographical development in the Israel / Palestine area …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………... …………………… 
psychological judgement of Israels role influenced by anti-semitism and holocaust  Entanglement of both parties in hate-loops like: 'It's very hard to forgive them for forcing us to kill them.' asymmetry in numbers of casualties, the (media-)effects of killed civilians, the (media-)effects of difference in numbers of casualties on both sides Palestinian physician working in Israel, living in Gaza, whose daughters were killed by the IDF while shooting the building where they lived in an appartment: 'My daughters regularly visited peace-camps. Yes, they were armed - with love.'
social 19th/20th century Russian and European anti-semitism > ideal of a Jewish nation-state Israel as belonging to the sphere of Western democracies, contrary to the surrounding countries and the Palestinians, ethnical, national and cultural differences segregation of Gaza population, scapegoating the entire population for the behavior of Palestinian extremists and terrorists
linguistical Hamas' manifest (1988): wicked enemy with Nazi behavior (..) Nazism of the Jews (..) Nazi Zionist measures (..) ferocious Mongol, Nazi onslaught (..) armies of the Crusaders (..) strive against the Zionist enemy and against its lackeys. februari 2008 - The Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas, accused Israel of "international terrorism," saying its assault on Gaza constitutes "more than a holocaust." - Saudi Arabia meanwhile compared the IDF offensive to "Nazi war crimes" accusations of fascism and terrorism
juridical Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) conflicting with the Balfour Declaration (1917): Palestine 'should be the national home of the Jewish people, but that nothing should be done - and this, of course, was a most important proviso - to prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine. 1919 The British placed Palestine, promised to the Zionist Federation in 1917, under mandate with a civilian administration headed by Herbert Samuel, and divided their remaining territory in the Middle East into the kingdoms of Iraq and Transjordan, assigning them to Faisal and his brother Abdullah, respectively. 1922 Curchill's wihte papers: The whole of Palestine west of the Jordan was excluded from Sir. Henry McMahon's pledge. Immigration of Jews should be allowed, but 'It is essential to ensure that the immigrants should not be a burden upon the people of Palestine as a whole, and that they should not deprive any section of the present population of their employment.' Gaza strip earlier British Mandate,captured by Egypt in 1940s. In 1947, the U.N. approved the partition of the British Mandate of Palestine into two states: one Jewish and one Arab. The Jewish leadership accepted the plan, but Palestinian Arab leaders, rejected it. 1948 UN Resolution 194 (Right to Return for Palestines). 1967 captured by Israel. Immediately after the war, on June 19, 1967, the Israeli government offered to return the Golan Heights to Syria, the Sinai to Egypt and most of the West Bank to Jordan in exchange for peace. At the Khartoum Summit in September, the Arab parties responded to this overture by declaring "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel and no negotiations with Israel." 1967ff illegal settlements in Gaza and in the Westbank, UN Resolution 242 and 2004 International Court (demanding withdrawel of Israel from the occupied territories and calling for the mutual recognition by the belligerent parties (Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan) of each other's established states and calls for the establishment of secure and recognized boundaries for all parties.), 1980 UN Resolution 478 (rejecting annexation East-Jerusalem by Israel)
political Zionist and Arab nationalism, 1978 Camp David Accords, 1993 Oslo Peace Process (two-state solution), 2000 Clinton blamed Arafat for the failure of the Camp David Summit, 2002 Quartet Roadmap for Peace, 2002 Arab Peace Initiative, 2003 Sharon's disengagementplan from Gaza, 2004 Arafat (failing peace-maker and failing state-builder) dies, 2005 Gaza disengagement implemented, Hamas wins the general elections in 2006, but is not allowed to participate in negatiotons about the Israel-Palestine core issues (issues which need to be resolved: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, security, borders and water), because Hamas is regarded as terrorist organisation. The US cited three conditions that the Palestinian government would need to satisfy for a resumption of aid: an end to violence, recognition of Israel, and adherence to the Road Map for Peace. In Gaza lack of governmental control of outgoing violence (rocket-launching), Haaretz (2008): the only way to ensure the safety of the people living near the Gaza border is through a political effort to reach a cease-fire agreement. demands Israel: safety for Israel, stop shooting rockets, Egypt (or another party): prevent weapons from being imported into Gaza / demands Hamas: open the borders to Egypt and Israel, stop Israel's controling Gaza air, sea and borders, recognize Hamas' jurisdiction (Hamas still not recognizing Israel - see their Manifest 1988: The hour of judgment shall not come until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them -Palestine is Islamic Waqf land given to all generations of Muslims until the Day of Resurrection. Conferences are nothing but a way to give the infidels power of arbitration over Muslim land, and when have the infidels ever been equitable towards the believers?).
military 1948 Arab-Israeli War, 1964 PLO founded, 1967 Six-Day War (capturing of Westbank from Jordan, Gaza strip from Egypt and Golan Hights from Syria), 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1982 Lebanon War, 1987 First Intifada (1,551 Palestinians and 422 Israelis killed), 1987 Hamas founded (Hamas openly states that it does not recognize Israel's right to exist), 2000 Second Intifada,  In 2006—the year following Israel's disengagement from the Gaza Strip—the Israeli government recorded 1,726 such launches, more than four times the total rockets fired in 2005. Israel stated that its 2007 Gaza military operations were in response to Hamas's frequent rocket attacks from Gaza into Sderot, and on other Israeli cities. According to Human Rights Watch, these deliberate attacks against civilians violate international humanitarian law. 2007 Hamas -Fatah battles in Gaza, lost by Fatah, but the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) still claims the autority in both the Westbank and Gaza After years of Qassam rocket and mortar attacks on Israeli civilian areas, in December 2008, the Israeli Defense Forces responded with Operation Cast Lead, aimed at Hamas militants, strongholds, rocket launch sites and ammunition depots throughout Gaza, killing almost 1300 Palestinians, the vast majority of whom Palestinian civilians.  the IDF reports that collateral damage is unavoidable as Hamas militants use densely populated areas, hospitals and mosques as ammunition depots and launching pads. As of January 19 2009, the UN estimates 60% of the 1284 Palestinians killed by Israel were civilians. The damage is estimated > 1.5 biljon. The Operation ends on January 19th, the day before the inauguration of Barak Obama as the 44th president of the US.
violent events (different from military operations) 1987-1993 First Intifada, Palestinian stones against Israelian bullets 1991 Sadam Hoessein (Irak) launches Scud rockets on Israel 1995 Rabin murdered by a Jewesh extremist (representing those who see the Oslo Peace Accord, which gave the Palestinians selfcontrol, as treason). 2000ff Second Intifada Hamas ended the tahdia (kind of cease-fire time-out, starting under Egyptian pressure on 18.6.2008 and respected by Israel, ended by Hamas on 19.12.2008) Jerusalem Post: Hamas executes 35 prisoners, accusing them of collaboration with Israel, and mutiliates 75 Fatah members in order to prevent another Fatah-coup 
economical poverty and economic problems of the refugees, also due to the refusal to grant citizenship to Palestinian Arabs in other Arab nations (NB cf none of the 900,000 Jewish refugees who fled anti-Semitic violence in the Arab world were ever compensated or repatriated by their former countries of residence) 1993ff Gaza blockade by Israel, controling air, see and land-borders (according to Oslo Accords between Israel & PLO). About 70% of Gaza's workforce has become unemployed or without pay, and about 80% of its residents live in grinding poverty. According to Human Rights Watch, this violated the international humanitarian law prohibition against collective punishment against the civilian population of Gaza. The Israeli Government's cut in the flow of fuel and electricity to the Gaza Strip has also been called collective punishment of the civilian population, which would be a violation of Israel’s obligations under the laws of war. Starting February 7, 2008, the Israeli Government reduced the electricity it sells directly to Gaza.
religious Disputes about locations that are important for Jews, Christians and Muslims. Many Muslims view the land of Palestine as an Islamic Waqf (trust) for future Muslim generations. A parallel exists in the aspirations of some Zionists and Jewish religious leaders to establish Jewish sovereignty over all of Greater Israel in trust for the Jewish people. in both parties one can find radical religious nationalists, who don't accept any compromise, and would prefer apocalyptic martyrdom above life
philosophical Israelian/Palestinian area as the mythical 'center of the world', cf the cloverleaf worldmap (1581), cf also Hamas' Manifest (1988): Palestine is the center of the Earth and the meeting place of the continents ideology of the 'Ummah' (community of Muslims), which was and still is broken by the existence of a nation of Jews in an area which was once under the control of the Islamic Caliphate  Hamas' manifest (1988): The Islamic Resistance Movement welcomes every Muslim who embraces its creed, adopts its ideology (..) the Palestinian issue is a religious issue (..) the PLO has adopted the idea of the secular state, and we [Hamas] view [the PLO] accordingly. Secularist ideology stands in total contradiction to the religious ideology. (..) Israel with its Jewish identity and Jewish people is challenging Islam and the Muslims.